Nearly 3000 first-year primary school students were followed up every year for 6 years. Professor wangningli, Dean of Beijing School of Ophthalmology, Capital Medical University and chief ophthalmologist of Beijing Tongren Hospital, conducted China's first cohort of children's myopia based on natural population - "Anyang children's eye disease research", which showed that hyperopia reserve was closely related to the incidence of myopia incidence rate. The smaller the hyperopia reserve in the first grade, the higher the incidence of myopia incidence rate. The ideal hyperopia reserve of grade one students in primary school should be above + 1.50D (i.e. 150 degrees). Therefore, we should move the "gateway" of myopia prevention and control to preschool children.
In addition, we should scientifically obtain and dynamically monitor children's hyperopia reserves, timely find high-risk children with myopia, take them as the main body of prevention and control, and take effective comprehensive prevention and control measures, which can contribute to the national strategic goal of reducing the incidence rate of myopia among students.
Professor Wang Ningli
Children's eyeballs and vision are gradually developed and mature. The eyeballs of newborns are small and the eye axis is short. With the growth and development of children, the eyeballs gradually grow from small to large, the eye axis becomes longer, and the refractive power of the eyes gradually tends to face up.
In the process of eyeball development, hyperopia reserve should be in the normal range. If the hyperopia reserve exceeds the upper limit of the corresponding age, we should pay attention to whether children have hyperopia and Hyperopia Amblyopia; Hyperopia reserve is lower than the lower limit of the corresponding age, that is, insufficient hyperopia reserve may lead to myopia. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the reference range of hyperopia reserve of Chinese school-age children.
Wang Ningli's team and the public health ophthalmology branch of the Chinese Preventive Medicine Association integrated the "Anyang children's eye disease research" and the children's eye data obtained from the investigation in different regions of China in recent years in accordance with international epidemiological standards, screened out children and adolescents who have always been non myopia, and defined the reference range of hyperopia reserve and axial length of school-age children, To provide an important reference for the prevention and control of myopia in children and adolescents in China.
That is, the reference range of hyperopia reserve: Based on emmetropia children who are always not myopia, the hyperopia reserve of school-age children aged 6 years is + 1.38d on average, and then the hyperopia reserve shows a gradual decreasing trend, decreasing at an average rate of + 0.12d every year. The decline range is the most obvious (+ 0.37d) in the stage of 8 ~ 9 years old. When they reach the age of 12, they enter the diopter range of emmetropia, and it is about + 0.31d at the age of 15.
It should be emphasized that in the process of children's eye development, the development of vision and diopter match each other. If the hyperopia reserve is within the normal range, we should also pay attention to the visual acuity of children. If the visual acuity is lower than the normal age range, we should pay attention to whether children have amblyopia.
It is reported that Professor wangningli's team has successively published two papers in the Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology, "cohort study on the relationship between hyperopia reserve and myopia incidence rate in primary school students: Anyang children's eye disease study" and "expert consensus on hyperopia reserve, axial length, corneal curvature reference interval and related genetic factors in Chinese school-age children (2022)".